El 1 de Mayo, día de los trabajadores y trabajadoras, ninguna manifestación recorrerá las calles del Estado español. El silencio de las calles será más inquietante que nunca sabiendo los grandes padecimientos que estamos sufriendo la clase trabajadora en este contexto. El Primero de Mayo la inmensa mayoría nos levantaremos más empobrecidas y sin poder protestar.
Dentro de la gama de grises que existen entre una manifestación multitudinaria y la prohibición absoluta, hay una posibilidad de modulación que el Gobierno no ha tenido en cuenta
El Ejecutivo, mediante las delegaciones de Gobierno, ha vetado todos los actos reivindicativos convocados para este día alegando una causa general para todas estas prohibiciones: la limitación de movimiento en el estado de alarma. Algunos sindicatos han recurrido estas restricciones genéricas en los juzgados y los resultados han sido dispares. El Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Andalucía y de Galicia ha dado la razón al Gobierno en la prohibición, sin embargo, en Aragón el Tribunal ha autorizado la manifestación de Zaragoza, consistente en una caravana de coches. Aquí en Sevilla, ha quedado dos a uno, pues la sentencia tiene el voto particular de uno de los ponentes que da la razón al Sindicato Andaluz de Trabajadores.
El debate está servido: ¿está suspendido el derecho a manifestación durante el estado de alarma? La declaración de este, efectuada en virtud del artículo 116 de la Constitución, no supone la suspensión de ningún derecho fundamental, entre los que se encuentra el de reunión, que es el que ejercemos cuando nos manifestamos. El derecho a manifestación sólo es posible suspenderlo de manera general con la declaración de los estados de excepción y sitio, y no es el caso. Lo que sí puede limitarse es la manera de ejercerlo para garantizar la seguridad pública de las personas y los bienes.

Las convocatorias prohibidas consistían en una caravana de unos cincuenta vehículos, con solo una persona en cada uno, con equipos Epis y distancia de seguridad entre coches. Se trataba de llevar megafonía y ejercer el derecho fundamental a la protesta sin que nadie coincidiera en el mismo espacio. Aun así el Gobierno podía haberlo limitado aún más, si consideraba que todavía había riesgo para la salud. Las delegaciones de Gobierno podían, por ejemplo, haber exigido trajes de protección antivírica homologados o coches blindados, pero el Ejecutivo ha optado por la opción más cómoda: prohibirlo de manera general en todo el Estado con los mismos argumentos.
La paradoja en la que ha caído el Gobierno es la siguiente: estamos en un estado de alarma que limita la libertad de movimiento, aunque hay alguna excepciones como ir a trabajar, pero la de manifestarse no se contempla, así que nadie se puede manifestar. Esto en la práctica es decir que durante este estado de alarma las manifestaciones están prohibidas de manera general, algo que la ley impide expresamente.
El derecho de reunión, el que ejercemos cuando nos manifestamos, es un derecho fundamental y sus limitaciones deben ser muy excepcionales. Hay que motivar en cada caso concreto porque se limita y no vale argumentaciones generales para todos los casos. También han de modularse muy bien las limitaciones. Dentro de la gama de grises que existen entre hacer una manifestación multitudinaria y la prohibición absoluta, hay una posibilidad de modulación que el Gobierno no ha tenido en cuenta a pesar de estar obligado a ello.
Y esta obligación expresa de modular, y hacer todo lo posible para que pueda ejercerse el derecho de manifestación, existe porque este es una libertad de expresión colectiva que supone un auténtico motor de la democracia, por eso hay que cuidarlo tanto. No es opinión mía, es jurisprudencia del Tribunal Constitucional. Los cambios sociales hacia horizontes de mayor justicia social solo se han conseguido a lo largo de la historia de una manera: protestando. Cuando las personas que sufren una opresión específica se reúnen y expresan colectivamente sus malestares en el espacio público es cuando se conquistan derechos.
En las últimas ocho semanas muchas personas trabajadoras han estado expuestas a grave riesgo para su salud y su familia. Esta misma semana se confirmaba el contagio de casi 400 trabajadores en una empresa cárnica por falta de medidas de seguridad. Por cierto, un gran número de ellos, personas inmigrantes. Sobran motivos para protestar el 1 de Mayo. Y cuando salgamos de casa habrá aún más motivos. Muy posiblemente nos esperen descuelgues de convenio colectivos y revisiones a la baja del salario mínimo interprofesional en nombre la de “recuperación económica”. Vamos a necesitar más que nunca el derecho a la protesta sin restricciones para poder conseguir esos cambios sociales que permitan condiciones de vida digna a todos y todas.
La interpretación restrictiva de derechos fundamentales en tiempos de excepción, como los actuales, allana el camino a una deriva autoritaria en el futuro. Quizás una caravana de unos cuantos coches con altavoces nos hubiera resultado algo estridente en el imaginario colectivo después de este duro confinamiento, pero hubiera sido preferible ese impacto, aunque no convenciera a todos, que permitir que constaran por escrito interpretaciones restrictivas de derechos fundamentales poco fundamentadas. Las interpretaciones que hacemos hoy de los derechos fundamentales son las que quedarán como referencia para quienes vengan mañana. Y en esa “nueva normalidad” que nos espera pueden existir otros muchos momentos excepcionales y deberíamos asegurarnos que en todos ellos tendremos el derecho a protestar contra las injusticias.
La caravana de coches de las compañeras y compañeros de Zaragoza este Primero de Mayo nos da una esperanza de que aún podemos conquistar un futuro de mayores cotas de justicia social si lo peleamos juntos.

Autora: Pastora Filigrana

Artículo original publicado el 1 de mayo de 2020 en la revista digital Contexto https://ctxt.es/es/20200501/Firmas/32115/Pastora-Filigrana-primero-mayo-derecho-manifestacion.htm

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