Discriminación y Derechos Humanos

“Nuestro compromiso, como personas que reflexionan sobre -y se comprometen con- los Derechos humanos, reside en poner las “frases” a las prácticas sociales de individuos y grupos que luchan cotidianamente para que esos “hechos” que se dan en contextos concretos y materiales que vivimos puedan ser transformados por otros más justos, equilibrados e igualitarios. Por eso, la verdad la ponen los que luchan por los derechos.”

 

Joaquín Herrera Flores. La reinvención de los Derechos Humanos (2008). 

Tratar a las trabajadoras de una manera justa por parte de las empresas es un Derecho Humano. Cualquier persona puede ser víctima de Discriminación, y ésta se da en todos los ámbitos de nuestra vida, tanto público como privado (en el lugar de trabajo, antes de acceder a un puesto de trabajo, en el barrio donde vives, en un local de ocio, en la empresa, en la calle…)

Todos los días nos encontramos con prácticas discriminatorias y existen muchos motivos, los más conocidos son por razón de sexo, nacimiento, origen racial o étnico (comunidad inmigrante o gitana), por discapacidad o por religión, por convicciones, por orientación sexual (homosexual, binario…), orientación de género (transexuales), por enfermedad, por ser parte de un sindicato, asociación… En síntesis, la discriminación se puede dar en cualquier entorno y nos puede pasar a cualquiera.

¿En qué consiste la Discriminación y la importancia del derecho a la igualdad y no discriminación?

La discriminación consiste en dar un trato menos favorable o hacer alguna distinción entre las personas o situaciones cuando no existen diferencias relevantes. Pero también existe discriminación, cuando ante situaciones diferentes se les da un trato idéntico.  Es un acto ilegal que debe ser denunciado (ante inspección de trabajo si está relacionado con motivo laboral, por ejemplo).

Para mejor conocer nuestros Derechos, debemos comentar algunas normas que la regulan:

1. Instrumentos y Tratados Internacionales

Declaración de Filadelfia afirma que “Todos los Seres Humanos, sin distinción de raza, credo o sexo tienen derecho a perseguir su bien estar material y su desarrollo espiritual en condiciones de libertad y dignidad, seguridad económica y en igualdad de oportunidades.” La Discriminación constituye una violación de los Derechos enunciados en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos.

2. Instrumentos y Tratados Europeos

Carta de Derechos Fundamentales UE (art.21), Tratado de funcionamiento de la UE (ART.18 Y 19), Directivas relativas a la aplicación del principio de igualdad de trato de las personas interdependientemente de su origen racial o étnico. Directiva sobre establecimiento de un marco general para la igualdad de trato en el empleo y la ocupación, o que establecen el principio de igualdad entre mujeres y hombres que ejercen una actividad, por citar sólo algunas.

3. Normas Españolas

Constitución de 1978: Artículos 1.1, 9.2, 10 y 14 (derecho fundamental de garantía de igualdad).

 Reconoce la igualdad como uno de los valores supremos de nuestro ordenamiento jurídico. Es decir, el principio de la igualdad es transversal a todo el ordenamiento jurídico.

El Real Decreto-ley 6/2019, de 1 de marzo, regula medidas urgentes para la garantía de igualdad de trato y oportunidades entre mujeres y hombres en el empleo y la ocupación. 

Es de hacer notar, que en esta materia existen muchas más normas que, de manera específica, regulan y tipifican motivos discriminatorios como por ejemplo en el ámbito del deporte, normas penales (delitos de Odio), laborales y administrativas que abarcan la lucha contra la discriminación. Dada la dimensión de la materia, los distintos motivos discriminatorios los iremos analizando en siguientes artículos.

Si alguna vez has sentido y crees que has sufrido discriminación por cualquier motivo, contacta con nosotras a través de nuestra web o vía telefónica.

Rocío del Carmen Mendoza Serrano.

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