El Estado del Bienestar después del coronavirus

Sabido es que España se constituye en Estado Social y Democrático de Derecho, y que el Estado ha adquirido la obligación de ayudar económicamente a los ciudadanos que lo necesiten. Así, se han creado en España las pensiones que constituyen una fuente de ingresos a los ciudadanos que han perdido su fuente principal de ingresos, que es el salario por su trabajo. Las Pensiones por jubilación, por invalidez, por viudedad… etc, son un ejemplo de ello. Pero también siguen la misma idea las prestaciones por desempleo, por incapacidad transitoria, etc.

Bien es cierto que el Estado de Bienestar español no llega a la altura de otros Estados de bienestar que ofrecen unas ayudas superiores a sus ciudadanos. Así, el desempleo es superior en cantidad y duración en otros países, al igual que las pensiones por jubilación, por invalidez, etc. Incluso existen ayudas en otros países inexistentes en España, como las guarderías públicas gratuitas, las subvenciones económicas por nacimiento, etc. Obviamente, un Estado de Bienestar extenso, requiere un sistema impositivo fuerte. Pero en todo caso, eso es algo que se debe decidir por quien corresponda, en un marco democrático.

En España, como hemos dicho, el Estado de Bienestar no está tan desarrollado como en otros países. La entidad, cuantía, duración, facilidad o no de acceso a prestaciones, etc, y el sistema impositivo necesario para mantener ese Estado de bienestar, que existe en España, nos diferencia bastante de otros países, especialmente de los países integrantes originariamente de la Unión Europea.

Pero la epidemia de Coronavirus que en la actualidad estamos padeciendo, ha servido, también, para ampliar el Estado de Bienestar en España, a partir de unas medidas adoptadas por el Estado, para hacer frente a las consecuencias económicas del Coronavirus. No se trata de unas medidas adoptadas para ampliar nuestro sistema de Estado de Bienestar, sino de unas medidas provisionales, que amplían nuestro Estado de Bienestar, pero tienen fecha de caducidad, en el sentido de que tienen valor por un tiempo, no indefinidamente. Se podría decir que no se trata de Leyes, sino de Leyes-medida, en la antigua terminología administrativa. Su finalidad es conseguir el objetivo de luchar contra las consecuencias negativas del Coronavirus, no modificar indefinidamente nuestro Ordenamiento Jurídico.

Así, un Decreto-Ley ha ampliado determinadas prestaciones ofertadas por el Estado español, y en consecuencia, ha ampliado el Estado de bienestar en España. Pero ha sido una norma ideada para supuestos de urgencia, no para situaciones ordinarias, y además, la misma norma que amplía el Estado de bienestar condiciona esta ampliación. Me refiero al Decreto-Ley 8/2020, que amplía o crea una serie de prestaciones, pero no indefinidamente, sino de manera condicionada. Así, el art. 28 del citado Real Decreto Ley establece que estas medidas estarán vigentes “mientras se mantenga la situación extraordinaria derivada del Civid-19”. Pero ¿cuál es esta situación extraordinaria? ¿La vigencia del Decreto que establece el estado de alarma, y sus prórrogas, o la existencia del Coronavirus? Y si no depende de la vigencia del estado de alarma, ¿de qué depende? ¿Hasta cuándo estarán vigentes?

Según la opinión del que suscribe, la vigencia de las medidas adoptadas con ocasión de la epidemia de Coronavirus puede tener la vigencia que el Legislador decida. Por tanto, puede tener una vigencia que supere la vigencia del estado de alarma, si existe o se hace una norma que así lo establezca.

La prórroga del estado de alarma supondrá la continuación de esta situación, y por tanto, la continuación de la vigencia de estas medidas. La no prórroga del estado de alarma puede determinar la pérdida de vigencia de estas medidas, pero el legislador puede decidir mantenerlas sin vinculación concreta a la vigencia del estado de alarma.

Lo que sí es claro es que una vez derogadas estas medidas que amplían el Estado de Bienestar, será difícil o imposible instaurarlas de nuevo. Sería una muy difícil reinstauración.

Juan Pedrosa

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