Coronavirus: me mandan a casa, ¿y ahora qué?

Una de las consecuencias derivadas de la alarma sanitaria que ha supuesto la irrupción del COVID-19 ha sido que muchas empresas hayan adoptado o estén adoptando distintas medidas  durante los días correspondientes a la duración del estado de alarma. Esta situación ha dado lugar a que muchos trabajadores hayan sido enviados a sus casas durante ese periodo bajo la figura de un “ERTE”. Y qué supone esto: pues se trata de una figura prevista en el Estatuto de los Trabajadores (en adelante, ET). La empresa puede estar planteando este expediente de regulación temporal de empleo (ERTE) basándose bien en causas económicas, técnicas, organizativas o de producción, es decir, en aquellas causas definidas en el artículo 47 del ET[1]; esta medida puede aplicarse cualquiera que sea la plantilla de la empresa, lo inicia el empresario comunicándolo a la autoridad laboral y ha de llevarse a cabo previamente un periodo de consultas entre empresa y la representación de los trabajadores durante, al menos, quince días; la autoridad laboral, por su lado, hace las comunicaciones para que los trabajadores afectados cobren durante ese tiempo la prestación por desempleo. Cuando termina el periodo de consultas, junto con un informe de la Inspección de Trabajo, las medidas se dan por validadas y el empresario comunica su decisión de suspender contratos desde que lo comunicó a la autoridad laboral en los quince días siguientes a que terminó el periodo de consultas. Puedes formular demanda frente a esta decisión del empresario.

Pero la actual alerta sanitaria puede ser constitutiva de fuerza mayor (art. 51.7 ET) y esto supone también la suspensión o incluso la extinción de la relación laboral. El procedimiento es más sencillo para la empresa, en este caso, no se prevé la necesidad de llevar a cabo un periodo de consultas, la empresa lo comunica a la autoridad laboral (también a los representantes de los trabajadores) y ésta emite su resolución, en la que solo tiene que verificar que sí existe la fuerza mayor (es decir, la pandemia) en los cinco días siguientes, previendo si parte de las indemnizaciones corren a cargo del FOGASA. A partir de ahí, la medida es ejecutiva desde la fecha de la fuerza mayor.

En los ERTE, los trabajadores pierden por tanto, el tiempo acumulado de desempleo, pero, en todo caso, se trata de una medida de carácter temporal. No obstante, las medidas flexibilizadoras y/o de extinción de la relación laboral son variadas y no necesariamente alternativas, por lo que estaremos alerta ante cualquier utilización de la pandemia como vía de extinciones injustificadas. Ante cualquier duda, ¡consúltanos!.

Noelia Rodríguez, Abogadas SCA


[1] “Se entiende que concurren causas económicas cuando de los resultados de la empresa se desprenda una situación económica negativa, en casos tales como la existencia de pérdidas actuales o previstas, o la disminución persistente de su nivel de ingresos ordinarios o ventas. En todo caso, se entenderá que la disminución es persistente si durante dos trimestres consecutivos el nivel de ingresos ordinarios o ventas de cada trimestre es inferior al registrado en el mismo trimestre del año anterior.

Se entiende que concurren causas técnicas cuando se produzcan cambios, entre otros, en el ámbito de los medios o instrumentos de producción; causas organizativas cuando se produzcan cambios, entre otros, en el ámbito de los sistemas y métodos de trabajo del personal o en el modo de organizar la producción y causas productivas cuando se produzcan cambios, entre otros, en la demanda de los productos o servicios que la empresa pretende colocar en el mercado”.

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