Mi convenio colectivo ha caducado, ¿qué hacer?

La antigua Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo, Sala de lo Social, de 22-12-2004, dictada en el Recurso de Casación 264/2014, interesa ser analizada por las circunstancias en que se dicta.

El problema que se intenta resolver en esta Sentencia es el derivado de que, pasado un año desde que el convenio es denunciado, sin ser sustituido por otro nuevo, ¿qué condiciones de trabajo se aplican? El art. 86-3 del Estatuto de los Trabajadores dice que: “Transcurrido un año desde la denuncia del convenio colectivo sin que se haya acordado un nuevo convenio o dictado un laudo arbitral, aquel perderá, salvo pacto en contrario, vigencia y se aplicará, si lo hubiere, el convenio colectivo de ámbito superior que fuera de aplicación”.

La norma es clara: en estos casos el convenio pierde vigencia y se aplica el convenio colectivo de ámbito superior, si lo hubiera. Según esta norma, el convenio de empresa desaparece en estas circunstancias, y si tenemos en cuenta que normalmente los convenios de empresa establecen mejores condiciones de trabajo que los de sector, los trabajadores afectados por la pérdida del convenio de empresa perderían esas mejores condiciones que establece el convenio de empresa.

La norma no dice nada respecto a qué pasa cuando no existe convenio de ámbito superior, pero se entiende que, en estos casos, decaído el convenio en estas circunstancias, se aplica las condiciones de trabajo que establece la Ley (jornada máxima legal, salario mínimo interprofesional, etc).

Como decimos, la norma es clara al respecto, y sabido es que in claris non fit interpretatio, pero el hecho de que desaparezcan unas condiciones de trabajo y sean sustituidas por los mínimos legales, no es algo que pueda ser aceptado. Eso de que lo que esta claro no debe ser interpretado, es algo muy relativo.

Los Tribunales han dictado muchas Sentencias en que no se aplicaba la norma por motivos formales que impedían llegar al fondo, pero la Sentencia comentada de la Sala de lo Social del Tribunal Supremo se enfrenta con el problema, estudiando el fondo del mismo, sin tener en cuenta problemas de forma que no existen en este supuesto. Parece que le dan una chupada al mismo puro fumado por Ihering (o uno similar) y se elevan al cielo de los juristas para resolver esta cuestión apelando a los conceptos jurídicos puros.

Según dicen los Magistrados del TS, si el convenio colectivo de empresa desaparece por no ser sustituido por otro tras un año desde que fue denunciado, se crean una serie de perjuicios para ambas partes del contrato: no sólo el trabajador pierde el salario y la jornada, sino que también el empresario pierde la posibilidad de sancionar al trabajador si no es con el despido; las categorías y grupos profesionales desaparecen; la programación anual de las vacaciones también desaparece, igual que las reglas para el comité intercentros, o para acomodar la representación de los trabajadores a la reducción de plantilla. En definitiva, desaparecería el objeto y la causa del contrato de trabajo. Por ello, no es admisible el supuesto de que se regule el contrato de trabajo sólo por los mínimos legales.

Para evitar todas estas consecuencias negativas de la pérdida del convenio colectivo, el TS opina que las condiciones de trabajo fijadas en el convenio se contractualizan desde el primer momento de vida del convenio. Es decir, que esas condiciones de trabajo se integran en el contrato de trabajo, de manera que, aunque el convenio se pierda por las circunstancias que hemos visto, las condiciones de trabajo no, porque están vinculadas al contrato de trabajo.

Esto tiene como consecuencia que las condiciones de trabajo establecidas en el convenio (por ejemplo, el salario) siguen siendo aplicables, aunque el convenio desaparezca, porque esas condiciones de trabajo se han contractualizado. Ciertamente, podrán ser modificadas por el empresario, pero conforme a las formas y requisitos previstos en el art. 41 ET. De lo contrario, esas condiciones de trabajo siguen siendo aplicables, pese a que el convenio colectivo desaparezca.

Esto, en la práctica, conlleva, por ejemplo, que los trabajadores pueden mantener su salario aunque el convenio colectivo que establece ese salario, desaparezca por el transcurso de un año después de la denuncia del mismo. Y su jornada, y su categoría profesional.

Lo de que una sola palabra del legislador convierte en maculatura bibliotecas enteras, es más que discutible.

Si estás en esta situación, plantéanos tus dudas y te ayudaremos,  somos especialistas en Derecho del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social, puedes contactar con nosotras a través de Email: info@abogadas.coop o de teléfono 955125518.

Juan Pedrosa González.

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