Acoso en el trabajo: 10 puntos para identificarlo

Cuántas hemos sentido alguna vez estar siendo víctimas de acoso laboral, pero ¿conocemos realmente qué es? ¿sabemos cuáles son las pruebas que debemos aportar ante un juicio para probar su existencia? ¿qué va a tener en cuenta ese tribunal para otorgarme la tutela que le solicito?

Antes de dar respuesta a estas cuestiones, debemos partir de que el trabajo se enmarca en una situación desigual de poder, por lo que el conflicto siempre va a estar presente en mayor o menor medida, incrementándose durante las últimas décadas con la incorporación masiva de las nuevas tecnologías de la información al ámbito del trabajo, a lo que se suman los años de crisis económico financiera, que favorecen reformas de la normativa laboral que han venido a legitimar decisiones empresariales que, al afectar objetivamente a una mayoría, eluden la posibilidad de ser vistos como acciones concretas individualizadas, aunque sí sean así percibidas por quien las sufre. Enmarcada la cuestión, la pregunta es cuándo nos encontramos ante un acoso laboral de forma que puedo reclamar de un tribunal el reconocimiento y cese de esa situación. En este artículo trataremos de dar respuesta a estas preguntas, de forma que conozcas cuándo te encuentras ante una situación de acoso:

  1. Aunque he de comenzar aclarando que no existe una regulación específica que defina qué es el acoso laboral ni, por tanto, tampoco contamos con un listado de conductas constitutivas del mismo, debes conocer que su primera manifestación teórica no proviene del Derecho, sino del ámbito de la psicología[1], y que al mismo tiempo, en la construcción del concepto de acoso, se ha de interactuar con otras disciplinas, como la medicina, la prevención de riesgos laborales, los derechos y principios fundamentales [2]o el derecho penal, lo que repercute en la definición de este término.
  2. La incorporación a nuestro ordenamiento jurídico (por qué un juzgado puede estimar tu demanda), no se ha hecho mediante una norma, sino a través de resoluciones judiciales procedentes de juzgados y Salas de lo Social de Tribunales Superiores de Justicia, en contextos en que, al afectar a la relación de trabajo, se han utilizado unos cauces procesales que pueden terminar resolviendo el contrato de trabajo existente junto con la condena al empresario/Administración Pública a abonar una indemnización por esa finalización e incluso con una indemnización adicional por el daño ocasionado. Todo ello, sin perjuicio de otras acciones que puedan entablarse por la víctima en otros órdenes, como el penal o el administrativo y/o contencioso administrativo.
  3. Se trata de conductas reiteradas, persistentes y próximas entre sí en el tiempo, existiendo sentencias que requieren que transcurra determinado tiempo para apreciar acoso[3].
  4. Estas conductas pueden consistir en “hacer” o activas o en “no hacer” u omisiones o actitudes pasivas.
  5. Como algunos ejemplos de conductas activas tenemos: insultos o palabras ofensivas o ridiculizantes, ataques contra la propia reputación, restricción en el uso de material[4], crítica sobre el trabajo realizado, dificultar las fechas de vacaciones[5], descansos solicitadas o solicitar que se trabaje fuera de la jornada y horarios establecidos[6] en base a requerimientos laborales o negar formación solicitada[7]; aumento/sobreincremento de la carga de trabajo, vaciamiento de funciones[8]; y, como conductas omisivas, negar la comunicación con clientes, compañeros, etc., aislamiento o ignorancia a la víctima[9]. Repito que no es un listado cerrado.
  6. Estas conductas pueden ser realizadas directamente por un jerárquico superior[10], pero también mediante otros trabajadores[11].
  7. Puede tratarse de acciones que individualmente no se tendrían en cuenta[12], pero que conjuntamente atentan contra la dignidad[13], por su matiz humillante y descalificador.
  8. Estas conductas, valoradas conjuntamente, provocan un clima de trabajo hostil para la víctima según algunas sentencias[14], o incluso, para otras sentencias, responde a un plan preconcebido sobre la víctima trabajadora (destrucción moral de la persona y/o demostración de la innecesariedad de la trabajadora acosada[15] o que la persona trabajadora decida voluntariamente irse de la empresa/Administración Pública para no continuar siendo víctima del acoso[16]).
  9. No solo se valora la gravedad de estas conductas, sino también la del daño[17] que debe ser resarcido[18] y que se concreta[19] en la aparición de una o varias dolencias y/o patologías médicas o en su empeoramiento[20], como, por ejemplo, la depresión[21], entre otras muchas, y que debe concurrir para apreciar acoso para un sector de la doctrina judicial, aunque para otro, lo que se valora es la posibilidad de causar el daño pretendido[22].
  10. Entre conducta y daño ha de existir una relación causa efecto (nexo causal[23]) que habrá de probarse en el correspondiente juicio.

Sabemos que es una situación difícil y que en ocasiones te encuentras abrumada e incluso, asustada y no sabes qué hacer, plantéanos tus dudas y te ayudaremos,  somos especialistas en Derecho del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social, contacta con nosotras a través de Email: info@abogadas.coop o de teléfono 955125518.

Noelia Rodríguez Suárez.

[1] Véanse Hirigoyen, Marie France: El acoso moral en el trabajo, Paidós, Barcelona, 2001; El acoso moral en el trabajo. Distinguir lo verdadero de lo falso, Paidós, Barcelona, 2006. Véase también Leymman, Heinz: Mobbing: la persécution au travail, Editions du Seuil, París, 1996; The content and development of mobbing at work, European Journal of work and organitational psychology, nº 2, 1996.
[2] Como la dignidad, prevista en el art. 10 de la Constitución Española (en adelante, CE) la integridad física y moral (art. 15 CE) y el derecho al honor y la propia imagen (art. 18 CE).
[3] STSJ Castilla-La Mancha 28/5/02; SSTSJ Comunidad Valenciana 17/09/03 y 16/12/03.
[4] STSJ País Vasco 10/05/05.
[5] STSJ Castilla-La Mancha 15/12/05.
[6] STSJ Castilla La Mancha 30/05/07.
[7] STSJ País Vasco 10/05/05.
[8] SSTSJ País Vasco 10/05/05 y 04/10/11;  STSJ Cantabria 14/12/18.
[9] STSJ Castilla-La Mancha 15/12/05.
[10] Nuevamente, STSJ Castilla-La Mancha 15/12/05.
[11] STSJ Castilla La Mancha 30/05/07.
[12] STSJ Galicia 6/3/03; STSJ Cataluña 16/1/07; STSJ C. Valenciana 08/01/08.
[13] STC 53/1985, de 11 de abril.
[14] SSTSJ Cataluña 24/10/05 y 6/5/05; STSJ Castilla-La Mancha 28/5/02; TSJ Granada 9/9/03; TSJ Madrid 29/1/04; TSJ Murcia 12/1/04.
[15] STSJ Cantabria 14/12/18.
[16] STSJ Madrid 17/5/04; 16/5/06; STSJ Galicia 9/12/05.
[17] STSJ Madrid 16/5/06.
[18] STSJ Castilla La Mancha 30/05/07.
[19] STSJ Asturias 14/5/04.
[20] STSJ Sevilla 19/12/02.
[21] STSJ Castilla La Mancha 30/05/07.
[22] STSJ Cantabria 30/7/04; STSJ Aragón 30/6/03.
[23] STSJ Madrid 28/11/08.

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